Digital enhancement and photogrammetric recording of La Joquera Levantine rock art (Borriol, Castelló)

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.4995/var.2024.19906

Keywords:

Levantine art, rock art, digital archaeology, digital photogrammetry, World Heritage, virtualization

Abstract

The heritage values of Levantine rock art, as UNESCO World Heritage since 1998 and as an Asset of Cultural Interest since 1985 according to the Spanish Heritage Act, together with its fragile nature, demand developing initiatives aimed at regularly revisiting and monitoring the sites and updating any existing records (descriptions, tracings, photographs, etc.). This is especially important for long-known sites, such as La Joquera, discovered and first graphically recorded in 1930 and for which these records have not been updated for decades. Such revisits should be aimed to: a) asses the integrity of the finds since their discovery or since the last revision; b) test whether current digital technologies can improve previous interpretations and reproductions of the art preserved there; and c) produce accurate three-dimensional (3D) photorealistic models that capture the 3D nature of this heritage and even improve the visualisation of motifs. These integral approaches are relevant to the qualitative and quantitative study of the art, as well as to its preservation and monitoring, and creation of digital archives to ensure a virtual future for Levantine art. This paper reports the technologies and methods used, the challenges faced (in terms of space available, lighting restrictions and the visual interference caused by the protective fence), and the results obtained at La Joquera rock art site as part of the 2D and 3D digital recording of the rock surface, the colour and the motifs depicted. Highlights of this paper include the identification of previously invisible weaponry and adornments of the only archer preserved on this site, as well as some other incomplete remains. Deliverables also include the production of a photorealistic model on which colour-intensified tracings are projected. This facilitates the identification of art that is now extremely faded and offers a closer look at what the site may have looked like originally.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Inés Domingo, Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats

She leads an ERC Consolidator Grant LArcHer addressing the many facets of Levantine rock art, bridging the gap between Archaeological and Heritage approaches to this heritage with a multidisciplinary team. Combining Archaeology, Heritage Science and Information Technologies, she aims to achieve a holistic approach and contribute to creating a digital future for this millenarian legacy.

Peyman Javadi, University of Barcelona

He is a Geomatics Engineer in the ERC Consolidator Grant LArcHer Project, applying his expertise in Geodesy and Photogrammetry to Levantine rock art documentation. and 3D modelling.

Dídac Roman, Jaume I University

His research has been devoted to advancing knowledge of two key research areas: the continuities and changes in the last Palaeolithic transitions (Middle-Upper Palaeolithic and Pleistocene-Holocene) and the archaeological context of Iberian Mediterranean rock art, subjects on which he leads several research projects.

References

Agisoft LLC. (2022). Agisoft Metashape User Manual - Professional Edition, Version 1.8.

Alonso, A., & Grimal, A. (2001) Acerca del estudio del arte levantino. Millars. Espai i Història, 24, 87-110.

Bea, M., & Angás, J. (2015). Las pinturas rupestres de Bezas y Tormón (Teruel).Teruel: Parque Cultural de Albarracín.

Beltran, A. (1985). Problemas del arte rupestre levantino en la provincia de Castellón. Quaderns de prehistòria i arqueologia de Castelló, 11, 111-140. https://doi.org/10.15366/cupauam1985.12.001

Benito, G., Machado, M. J., & Sancho, C. (1993). Sandstone weathering processes damaging prehistoric rock paintings at the Albarracin Cultural Park, NE Spain. Environmental Geology, 22, 71-79. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00775287

Bolecek, L., & Říčný, V. (2015). Influence of Stereoscopic Camera System Alignment Error on the Accuracy of 3D Reconstruction. Radio Engineering, 24(2), 610-620. https://doi.org/10.13164/re.2015.0610

Brady, L., Hampton, J., & Domingo, I. (2019). Recording rock art: Strategies, Challenges, and embracing the Digital Revolution. In B. David, and I. McNiven (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology and Anthropology of Rock Art (pp. 763-786). New York: Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780190607357.013.37

Bryan, P. G., Corner, I., & Stevens, D. (1999). Digital rectification techniques for architectural and archaeological presentation. Photogrammetric Record, 16(93). https://doi.org/10.1111/0031-868X.00131

Davis, A., Belton, D., Helmholz, P., Bourke, P., & Mcdonald, J. (2017). Pilbara rock art: laser scanning, photogrammetry and 3D photographic reconstruction as heritage management tools. Heritage Science, 5, 25. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40494-017-0140-7

Díez-Herrero, A., Gutiérrez-Pérez, I., Lario, J., Cañaveras, J., Benavente, D., Sanchez-Moral, S., & Azcárate, J. (2009). Analysis of potential direct insolation as a degradation factor of cave paintings in Villar del Humo, Cuenca, Central Spain. Geoarchaeology, 24, 450-465. https://doi.org/10.1002/gea.20274

Domingo, I. (2006). La figura humana, paradigma de continuidad y cambio en el Arte Rupestre Levantino. Archivo de Prehistoria Levantina , XXVI, 161-191.

Domingo I., & Barreda-Uso, G. (2023). Knowledge-building in open-air rock art conservation: sharing the history and experiences with Levantine rock art. Studies in Conservation, 68(2), 258-282. https://doi.org/10.1080/00393630.2021.1996092

Domingo, I., & Bea, M. (2016). From Science to Heritage: new challenges for World Heritage rock art sites in Mediterranean Spain in the 21st century. In L. Brady & P. Taçon (eds.), Relating to rock art in the contemporary world: navigating symbolism, meaning and significance (pp. 213-244). Denver: University Press of Colorado. https://doi.org/10.5876/9781607324980.c010

Domingo, I., & López-Montalvo, E. (2002). Metodología en el proceso de obtención de calcos o reproducciones. In: R. Martínez & V. Villaverde (Eds.), La Cova dels Cavalls en el Barranc de la Valltorta. Monografías del Instituto de Arte Rupestre. Tírig: Museu de la Valltorta (pp. 75-81).

Domingo, I., Carrión, B., Blanco, S., & Lerma, J. L. (2015). Evaluating conventional and advanced visible image enhancement solutions to produce digital tracings at El Carche rock art shelter. Digital Applications in Archaeology and Cultural Heritage, 2(2-3), 79–88. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.daach.2015.01.001

Domingo, I., López-Montalvo, E., Villaverde, V., & Martínez-Valle, R. (2007). Los abrigos VII, VIII y IX de les Coves de la Saltadora. Monografias del Instituto de Arte Rupestre. Tírig: Museu de la Valltorta.

Domingo, I., Villaverde, V., López-Montalvo, E., Lerma, J. L., & Cabrelles, M. (2013). Latest developments in rock art recording: towards an integral documentation of Levantine rock art sites combining 2D and 3D recording techniques. Journal of Archaeological Science, 40, 1879-1889. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2012.11.024

Galiana, M. F. (1985). Contribución al Arte Rupestre Levantino: Análisis etnográfico de las figuras antropomorfas. Lucentum, IV, 55-87. https://doi.org/10.14198/LVCENTVM1985.4.04

Grimal, A., & Alonso, A. (2021). Arte levantino en Castellón. Millars: espai i història, 24, 111-152.

Harman, J. (2005). Using Decorrelation Stretch to Enhance Rock Art Images (online publication). www.dstretch.com/AlgorithmDescription.html

Jalandoni, A., & May, S. (2020). How 3D models (photogrammetry) of rock art can improve recording veracity: a case study from Kakadu National Park, Australia. Australian Archaeology, 86(2), 137-146, https://doi.org/10.1080/03122417.2020.1769005

Jalandoni, A., Domingo, I., & Taçon, P. (2018). Testing the value of low-cost Structure-from Motion (SfM) photogrammetry for metric and visual análisis of rock art. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports, 17, 605-616. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jasrep.2017.12.020

Leica Geosystems. (2021). Leica FlexLine TS07 Manual Total Station. https://leica-geosystems.com/products/total-stations/manual-total-stations

Lerma, J. L., Navarro, S., Cabrelles, M., & Villaverde, V. (2010). Terrestrial laser scanning and close range photogrammetry for 3D archaeological documentation: The Upper Palaeolithic Cave of Parpalló as a case study. Journal of Archaeological Science. 37(3), 499–507. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2009.10.011

Mark, R., & Billo, E. (2006). Computer-assisted photographic documentation of rock art. Coalition, 11, 10-14.

Matamoros, C., & López, J. A. (2009). Gestión del arte rupestre de la Comunitat Valenciana, 1998-2008. El arte rupestre del Arco Mediterráneo de la Península Ibérica 10 años en la lista del Patrimonio Mundial de la UNESCO: Actas IV Congreso: (Valencia, 3, 4 y 5 de diciembre de 2008). Valencia: Generalitat Valenciana (pp. 169-178).

Mesado, N. (1989). Las pinturas rupestres de la Covatina del Tossalet del Mas de la Rambla, Vilafranca, Castellón. Lucentum VII-VIII, 35-56. https://doi.org/10.14198/LVCENTVM1988-1989.7-8.02

Núñez, A., Buill, F., Regot, J., & de Mesa, A. (2012). Generation of virtual models of cultural heritage. Journal of Cultural Heritage, 13(1), 103-106. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.culher.2011.06.004

Palmer, J., & García-Borja, P. (2020). Les jornades d’art rupestre de Borriol. Un exemple de divulgació científca en l’àmbit local. In J. A. López-Mira & J. M. Segura (Coords), El arte rupestre del Arco Mediterráneo de la Península Ibérica. 20 años en la lista del patrimonio mundial de la UNESCO. Valencia: Generalitat Valenciana (pp. 275–280).

Park, H., & Lee, D. (2019). Comparison between point cloud and mesh models using images from an unmanned aerial vehicle. Measurement, 138, 461-466. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.measurement.2019.02.023

Porcar, J. B. (1932). La pintura rupestre de La Joquera. Boletín de la Sociedad Castellonense de Cultura, XIII, 228-236.

Ripoll, E. (1963). Pinturas rupestres de la Gasulla. Monografías de Arte Rupestre. Arte Rupestre Levantino, 2. Barcelona: Instituto de Prehistoria y Arqueología de la Diputación Provincial de Barcelona

Roman, D., & Fullola-Isern, J. (2020). Revisitant la Cova Negra (La Pobla Tornesa, La Plana Alta). Un jaciment oblidat a la plana de Castelló. Quaderns de Prehistòria i Arqueologia de Castelló 38, 5-19.

Royo, J. I. (2023). Nuevos sitios de arte levantino y esquemático en el entorno de los barrancos de las Olivanas y Royuelo en la sierra de Albarracín. Revista Cuadernos de Arte Prehistórico, 15 (1): 60-91. https://doi.org/10.58210/rcdap149

Ruiz López, J. F. (2017). Arte rupestre en la sierra de las Cuerdas. Villar del Humo, Henarejos, Pajaroncillo, Boniches (Cuenca). Cuenca: Viceconsejería de Cultura de la Junta de Comunidades de Castilla-La Mancha.

Schneider, T., Hu, Y., Dumas, J., Gao, X., Panozzo, D., & Zorin, D. (2018). Decoupling Simulation Accuracy from MeshQuality. ACM Transactions on Graphics, 37(6), 280. https://doi.org/10.1145/3272127.3275067

Shortis, M. R., & Seager, J. W. (2014). A practical target recognition system for close range photogrammetry. Photogrammetric Record, 29(147), 337 -355. https://doi.org/10.1111/phor.12070

Soriano, J., Benedito, J., & Román, D. (2022). El paisaje. En J. J. Ferrer (Coord.), El arte rupestre en la provincia de Castellón: Historia, contexto y análisis. Castelló de la Plana: Publicacions de la Universitat Jaume I (pp. 77-111).

Sos Baynat, V. (1981). Compendio de geología de la provincial de Castellón. Estratigrafía, tectónica y orogenia. Castellón: Confedereción Española de Cajas de Ahorros.

Tahar, K. N. (2013). An evaluation on different number of ground control points in unmanned aerial vehicle photogrammetric block. International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, XL-2/W2, 93–98, https://doi.org/10.5194/isprsarchives-XL-2-W2-93-2013

Viñas, R., Morote, J. G., & Rubio, A. (2015). El proyecto: Arte rupestre del parque Valltorta-Gassulla y zona Norte de Castellón (Campaña 2008-2009). Monografíes de Prehistòria i Arqueologia Castellonenques, 11. Castelló: Diputació de Castelló.

Yogender, S. R., & Kushwaha, S. K. P. (2020). Role of Ground Control Points (GCPs) in Integration of Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) and Close-range Photogrammetry (CRP). In J. Ghosh & I. da Silva (Eds), Applications of Geomatics in Civil Engineering. Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering, vol 33. Singapore: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-7067-0_42

Downloads

Published

2024-01-15

How to Cite

Domingo, I., Javadi, P., & Roman, D. (2024). Digital enhancement and photogrammetric recording of La Joquera Levantine rock art (Borriol, Castelló). Virtual Archaeology Review, 15(30), 110–122. https://doi.org/10.4995/var.2024.19906

Issue

Section

Articles