VLC arquitectura. Research Journal https://ojs.cc.upv.es/index.php/VLC <p style="margin-top: 0cm; margin-right: 0cm; margin-bottom: 6.0pt; margin-left: 0cm; text-align: justify; text-justify: inter-ideograph;"><strong>VLC arquitectura</strong> is an international research journal, covering architecture with an interdisciplinary approach. It is meant to be a forum for discussion on the architectural and urban project, ranging from its technical, energetic and material dimensions, to its theoretical, historical and graphic perspective. Research on architectural education is also welcome.</p> Universitat Politècnica de València en-US VLC arquitectura. Research Journal 2341-3050 <p><a style="font-size: 0.875rem; color: #008acb;" href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="https://polipapers.upv.es/public/site/images/ojsadmin/By_Nc.png" alt="" /></a></p> <p>This journal i<span style="font-size: 0.875rem;">s licensed under a </span><a style="background-color: #ffffff; font-size: 0.875rem;" href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License</a></p> The Wall Unit System designed by Konrad Wachsmann. Mobility of Elements https://ojs.cc.upv.es/index.php/VLC/article/view/18252 <p>Between 1944 and 1945, Konrad Wachsmann developed the <em>Mobilar Structure</em> system, which was subsequently contracted out to the Atlas Aircraft Corporation, a company that developed aeroplanes after the Second World War. Wachsmann's project deals with large hangars which in turn must be supported by the minimum number of vertical elements to maximise the movement of the aeroplanes. These first developments by Wachsmann, in the 1950s, inaugurated the three-dimensional structural frameworks of large spans that ended up in the typology known as Megastructure, which was very popular in the utopian groups of the 1960s. In this first project there are two elements, perhaps secondary, but of great design efficiency: the structural node and the mobile vertical enclosure called <em>Wall Unit. </em>The first one exemplifies the search for the universal knot in bar grids. The second investigates the flexibility, assembly and disassembly, foldability and mobility of the artefact. The ideas used will would be taken up by utopian groups such as Archigram and GEAM or architects such as Cedric Price during the 1960s. Sometimes it is in the secondary that we find the germ of the reception of architectural theories and concepts.</p> Martino Peña Fernández-Serrano Copyright (c) 2023 VLC arquitectura. Research Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 10 2 7 29 10.4995/vlc.2023.18252 The original set designs for Bodas de sangre and Yerma: written and built spaces https://ojs.cc.upv.es/index.php/VLC/article/view/19705 <p>Federico García Lorca (1898-1936) was one of the most influential writers of Spanish literature of the 20th century. His particular point of view, influenced by rural and urban experiences, inspired set designs with high aesthetic and compositional value. This research analyzes the original stagings of Bodas de sangre in the Teatro Beatriz (Madrid, 1933) and Yerma in the Teatro Español (Madrid, 1934). Compiling documentary material and preparing plans and technical models offer a complete view of each proposal, considering the design criteria and construction processes of those designs for which information is available today. Studying the set designers responsible for each project is also relevant. Manuel Fontanals, Santiago Ontañón, and Siegfried Burmann were leading figures in Spanish and foreign theatrical plastic art during the Second Spanish Republic and the following years. In summary, the study shows how the designs for each scenic space were created, analyzing both their compositional and technical details and the transformation process from the written space to the built one. After all, set design is a discipline belonging to ephemeral architecture, which aims to generate atmospheres and structures with a short useful life but with aesthetic, functional, and stability requirements.</p> Aaron Jara-Calabuig Copyright (c) 2023 VLC arquitectura. Research Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 10 2 31 46 10.4995/vlc.2023.19705 The oscillation between “becoming-tool” and “becoming-prosthesis” in architectural designs https://ojs.cc.upv.es/index.php/VLC/article/view/19162 <p>This study explores the architectural design tools that have evolved through digital media in the postdigital era, which is evaluated through analog and digital hybridize. It raises the question of how the tool, as a mediator between the designer-subject and the designed-object in the architectural design process, can be re-examined in a hybrid design environment. The study proposes that what connects the designer-subject and the designed-object can be understood not only as a tool but also as a prosthesis. In this context, the “tool” in architectural design is described by the oscillation between the concepts of “becoming-tool” and “becomingprosthesis” and their impact on the designer-subject through bodily, cognitive, and consciousness extensions. The relations among the concepts are discussed by folding them on each other using the hermeneutic methodology.</p> Hande Asar Copyright (c) 2023 VLC arquitectura. Research Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 10 2 47 59 10.4995/vlc.2023.19162 The urban planning of the Muslim Valencia through the Llibre del Repartiment https://ojs.cc.upv.es/index.php/VLC/article/view/19785 <p>There is little evidence of the Muslim city of Balansiya in the mid-13th century. However, the Llibre del Repartiment is a valuable document to establish the urban topography of the Arab Valencia at the time of the Christian conquest. Names of streets, neighborhoods, atzucachs, singular buildings, properties of distinguished individuals...etc. are found throughout the text. Their systematic search by cataloging each of the references to obtain an approximate map of the part of the medina located southeast of the Boatella gate has been the objective of this research. The neighborhoods of Abencalbo, Alhadromi, Axigara and Algalga have been located; and the atzucach Avinaçalel, Alfaz, and Cavaçavery. Two baths, five ovens, four alfondechs and four mosques have also been detected. All this has been represented on a current plan of the city.</p> Concepción López González María Jesús Máñez Pitarch Copyright (c) 2023 VLC arquitectura. Research Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 10 2 61 82 10.4995/vlc.2023.19785 Enclosed by images. Insights, relationships, and information https://ojs.cc.upv.es/index.php/VLC/article/view/19417 <p>Although we have always lived among images and information, cinema first and the development of new information and communication technologies second are producing changes in the perception of space and time that affect both architecture and the arts in general. Throughout the 20th century, modifications of our perceptual apparatus have been reflected in artistic practices in general, and architectural practices in particular, where multimedia supports and moving images are the substance and material of architecture. These supports are the substance with which some of the most recent architectural forms and volumes have been constructed or projected, and they are also the creators of new urban landscapes. By analyzing some formal codifications in the visual strategy of a limited number of film proposals, it is possible to identify key relationships between art, video art, and prominent examples of advanced architecture since the mid-20th century, whose corollary extends to more recent decades. This research allows us to outline an initial genealogy of artistic practices and experiences that span the last century, where the idea of experiencing architecture among images has become a central theme.</p> Eusebio Alonso-García Iván Rincón-Borrego Sara Pérez-Barreiro Copyright (c) 2023 VLC arquitectura. Research Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 10 2 83 99 10.4995/vlc.2023.19417 Designing a cross for the top of the Tower of Jesus Christ in the expiatory temple of Barcelona’s Sagrada Familia (Holy Family) https://ojs.cc.upv.es/index.php/VLC/article/view/18883 <p>Gaudí’s Sagrada Familia (Holy Family) is his architectural masterpiece. The construction of 18 spires for this project were envisaged: four for each three entrance portals; and a system of six towers where the dome base of the centre tower is dedicated to Jesus Christ, a sec and the rest to the Apostles. This study is focused on the dome base of the so called Tower of Jesus since this particular element is still under construction and, when completed, its top part must support a four armed cross (25 meters) to reach a final height of 170 meters at its highest point. The sizes and weights of this ornamental element complicate the hoisting and arrangement of any (prefabricated) construction set because neither the initial building machines (made of steel) nor the machine models available in today’s market can perform such a complex task. As a result, the aim of this article consists of designing a very singular and symbolic element that meets both its aesthetic function and this complex building performance. </p> José Miguel Molines Cano Ana Almerich-Chulia Copyright (c) 2023 VLC arquitectura. Research Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 10 2 101 120 10.4995/vlc.2023.18883 Experiences of the INCLUDEC-UDEC program, construction of inclusive policies and practices https://ojs.cc.upv.es/index.php/VLC/article/view/18861 <p>In Chile, since the ratification in 2008 of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UN 2006), laws and regulations have been developed in this area, being essential in them to guarantee accessibility. The purpose of putting these guarantees into practice for a group of university students with disabilities at the University of Concepción, in Chile is that in 2014 the INCLUDEC (Interdisciplinary Program for Inclusion) was created, whose objective has been to promote an intersectoral view on the inclusion of people with disabilities. This article describes the contributions of the INCLUDEC Program, mainly in the area of accessibility, of an educational institution that has a campus (Campus Concepción) declared a National Monument and how the interdisciplinary look of the program has allowed the development in the institution of inclusive practices, which are a national and international reference in the approach to this issue. The conclusion of this review shows that to continue advancing on the issue of accessibility, the INCLUDES volunteer program must move towards a necessary institutionalization as a directorate or unit, which maintains the condition of intersectoral operation and with a transversal view of the accessibility issue.</p> Fabiola Colmenero Fonseca Ivonne Mella Vidal Copyright (c) 2023 VLC arquitectura. Research Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 10 2 121 149 10.4995/vlc.2023.18861 Documenting, studying and disseminating heritage: Opportunities, criteria, and challenges https://ojs.cc.upv.es/index.php/VLC/article/view/19657 <p>The recent evolution of the methods and techniques available for documenting heritage and landscape is evolving exponentially. The manual methods used in direct surveys, which are still useful in certain cases and circumstances, coexist with and complement the most modern photogrammetric techniques, scans, and 3D models. Therefore, it is time for a critical review of both the criteria for applying the different methods and the possibilities for disseminating the data and information obtained, ranging from the implementation of HBIM to virtual reality, which increasingly involves different senses and stimulates the imagination. It is precisely due to the easy access to so many means and techniques, and because of the European Union’s obligation to make information public (Open Data) and for citizens to participate in it (Open Science), that it is time to reflect on and critically analyze the opportunities and possibilities offered by each methodology, highlighting both its weaknesses and how to solve them.</p> Pilar Chías Navarro Copyright (c) 2023 VLC arquitectura. Research Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 10 2 153 175 10.4995/vlc.2023.19657 Graphic Reconstitution and urban shape: Rediscovering Old Towns https://ojs.cc.upv.es/index.php/VLC/article/view/19664 <p>The Old Towns of our cities are the origin of contemporary cities. The study of their evolution has been related to the comparative graphic analysis of the various moments or stages of their shaping in time and space. This research, which in some cases proposes the idea of graphic reconstitution of the urban shape, is being independently developed in various research centers across Europe in an attempt to recover, from the graphic, the idea of lost heritage, as a contribution to the citizens’ right to know the legacy of their ancestors and value it. Far from an isolated fact, the revaluation of urban heritage or even historical urban landscape, was highlighted by the European Union at the 2005 Framework Convention in Faro (Portugal), pointing out the importance of the contribution of the cultural heritage to society and human development. This work aims to justify the reasons why these objects of research are truly relevant to contemporary society.</p> Eduardo Carazo Álvaro Moral Copyright (c) 2023 VLC arquitectura. Research Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 10 2 177 202 10.4995/vlc.2023.19664 Research applied to the field of architectural graphic expression through digital means. Reference framework and roadmap https://ojs.cc.upv.es/index.php/VLC/article/view/19787 <p>The range of Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) that can be integrated into architectural design, and on which our applied research can focus, has expanded greatly in just 15 years, with new technologies. For all this, we face new challenges such as the integration of BIM, Big Data, Virtual Reality (VR), Collaborative Design, even Artificial Intelligence (AI). In this context we demand the exploration of border territories between architectural and ICT disciplines to broaden horizons. This proposal for analyzing the state of the art of ICT-AEC research, is based on our experience at the ETSAB-UPC, which after incorporating them naturally, has evolved from the original graphic expression with its various classic disciplines, towards a more transversal model of Digital-Urban Sketching, BIM+GIS, Parametric Design, Virtual Modeling and Visual Simulation in real time. The new horizon is to approach the simulation of the functioning of the city and buildings, thanks to multidisciplinary work in collaboration with other areas such as Architectural Technology, Civil Engineering, Geomatics, Urban Planning, Architectural Projects, in virtual environments. and interactive BIMxD+BigData+Digital Twin.</p> Ernest Redondo Copyright (c) 2023 VLC arquitectura. Research Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 10 2 203 224 10.4995/vlc.2023.19787 Architectural drawing. Language of thought and construction. Past, present and future https://ojs.cc.upv.es/index.php/VLC/article/view/19679 <p>Drawing has been an inseparable part of the creative discourse within architectural projects, both in its formative and professional aspects. This article aims to provide a reflection on the discipline of drawing from both its formative and professional perspectives, while assessing a landscape of graphic language transformation that remains in constant evolution, particularly since the late twentieth century, driven by the latest digital transformations and implementations. At present, we find ourselves amidst significant changes related to the adoption of resources stemming from this digital transformation, which are progressing towards deeper transformations through the latest developments in artificial intelligence. The architect’s work is a fusion of art and technique, fostering a dialogue between artistic creation and technical construction. Modern tools enable a more organized and precise production of architecture, bridging it with contemporary times and the evolving demands of society. Contemporary approaches, along with technological and methodological implementations within the field of architecture, immerse us in both analog and digital processes from creative and constructive perspectives. From this viewpoint, we can assert that our drawings are intelligent models that do not constrain the capabilities of the architect.</p> Javier Fco. Raposo Grau Miguel Paredes Maldonado Copyright (c) 2023 VLC arquitectura. Research Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 10 2 225 255 10.4995/vlc.2023.19679 Architectural Graphic Expression Bibliography 2017-2022 https://ojs.cc.upv.es/index.php/VLC/article/view/19416 <p>The objective of this bibliographic review of Architectural Graphic Expression (EGA) in the six-year period 2017-2022 is to offer an informative account of its referential theoretical framework, current lines of research and the knowledge transfer from this area of the Spanish university to society. The scientific production by EGA professors in Spain is disseminated through articles in scientific journals and other means of sharing knowledge such as books, congresses, exhibitions and other dissemination activities. Of these references, the books for this bibliographic review have been selected. The monographs and collective publications are the last phase in the communication of the results of a research project. They have a broad and summarised content but accessing it to that knowledge is complex since because many books do not have open digital editions and, therefore, are not indexed by title or keywords like other scientific publications. This text offers the keys to create an updated library where the thematic diversity of EGA is represented, which, since its constitution in 1984, includes history and theory of Shape Analysis, Descriptive Geometry, Architectural Drawing, and the application of its graphic procedures to multidisciplinary heritage research.</p> Amparo Bernal López-Sanvicente Copyright (c) 2023 VLC arquitectura. Research Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 10 2 257 274 10.4995/vlc.2023.19416 A contemporary approach to the graphic representation of the urban experience https://ojs.cc.upv.es/index.php/VLC/article/view/19770 <p>In the complex field of urban phenomenon analysis and representation, this text addresses the evolution of works specifically dedicated to investigating the relationships established between individuals and the city. It focuses its attention on one of the less studied aspects: the cartographic representation of subjective, emotional, and perceptual aspects related to the experience of navigating and inhabiting an urban space. The city cannot be considered as a neutral or objective space; on the contrary, there will always be an imaginary construct that shapes and accompanies it. This imaginary construct, which determines our way of perceiving, being, and moving within the city, is fundamental for a comprehensive understanding of urban processes and dynamics. Approaching this dialectical relationship between the physical and subjective dimensions of the city, which is intangible in itself, through analysis and graphic representation is now possible thanks to theoretical and, above all, technological advancements. The objective of this text is to contextualize this process by presenting two frames of reference: one conceptual, linked to the evolution of the term “landscape,” and another methodological, focused on presenting the technical advancements that have been decisive in the evolution of this type of representation. We take a journey through cartographic experiences initiated in the 1960s and arrive at some of the most innovative research lines in this field, such as Biomapping, real-time cartographies, or intelligent cartographies. The aim of the article is to reinforce and emphasize the utility of graphic expression as a tool for urban and territorial decision-making, highlighting its capacity to represent even the most sensitive and complex data. Through a panoramic view of the advancements achieved in recent decades regarding these types of cartographies, it illustrates the interesting convergence that can be delineated today between the traditionally connected areas of graphic expression in Architecture and Urbanism and the new scenarios of data management and analysis.</p> Cristina Vicente Gilabert Marina López Sánchez Mercedes Linares Gómez del Pulgar Copyright (c) 2023 VLC arquitectura. Research Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 10 2 275 298 10.4995/vlc.2023.19770 Editorial VLC#10.2 https://ojs.cc.upv.es/index.php/VLC/article/view/20619 Juan Serra Lluch Copyright (c) 2023 VLC arquitectura. Research Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 10 2 1 2 Editorial Findings in Architectural Graphic Expression https://ojs.cc.upv.es/index.php/VLC/article/view/20620 Marina Sender Contell Copyright (c) 2023 VLC arquitectura. Research Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 10 2 3 5