Energy and comfort. The historical evolution of the façade in Western Architecture




envelopes, history of construction, development of façades, technical advances in façades, review of façades


The envelope is considered to be the boundary between the outside and the inside of a building. The aim of this study is to analyze both the process that led the concept of the façade to evolve in Western architecture and the repercussions of such evolution, focusing on energy consumption and comfort. The entire evolution of the façade has been closely related to the evolution of materials and construction technologies. The comfort and energy characteristics of architecture have always been determined by the materials and construction technologies employed in façades. Architecture has improved in technical aspects, especially in terms of lighting and thermal comfort. Nevertheless, thermal comfort is usually linked to energy consumption, which is the parameter that has increased the most in this development, with the only exception being sustainable architecture.


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Research articles
Received 2021-10-26
Accepted 2022-07-25
Published 2022-10-28